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当前位置:不锈钢铸件是如何构成的
[来源:www.] [作者:精密铸造] [日期:18-11-07]

不锈钢:含铬量为12%以上的铁基合金称为不锈钢,是不锈钢和耐酸钢的总称。不锈钢是指耐大气、蒸汽和水等弱腐蚀介质的钢,而耐酸钢则是指耐酸、碱、盐等化学浸蚀性介质腐蚀的钢,不锈钢与耐酸钢在合金化程度上有较大差异,不锈钢虽然具有不锈性,但并不一定耐酸;而耐酸钢一般则均具有不锈性,在空气中或化学腐蚀介质中能够抵抗腐蚀的一种高合金钢,不锈钢是具有美观的表面和耐腐蚀性能好,不必经过镀色等表面处理,而发挥不锈钢所固有的表面性能,使用于多方面的钢铁的一种,通常称为不锈钢。当前,不锈钢铸件在市场上也得到了广泛应用,今天小编就为大家讲解不锈钢铸件的四种分类:
Stainless steel: an iron base alloy containing more than 12 percent chromium is called stainless steel and is the general term for stainless steel and acid-resistant steel. Stainless steel is weak corrosion media such as air, steam and water resistance of steel, acid steel is refers to the chemical etching media such as acid, alkali, salt corrosion of steel, stainless steel with acid-resistant steel alloying extent have bigger difference, the stainless steel are not rust, but does not necessarily acid; And acid is commonly have stainless steel, resistant to chemical corrosion medium in the air or corrosion of a high alloy steel, stainless steel is a beautiful surface and corrosion resistant performance is good, need not after surface treatment, such as color of plating and the surface of the stainless steel inherent performance, used in a variety of steel a, often called stainless steel. Today, stainless steel castings are widely used in the market, and today we will cover four categories of stainless steel castings:

 
按化学成分分类不锈钢有Cr不锈钢和Cr、Ni不锈钢两大类。影响不锈钢腐蚀性能的主要是含C量和析出的碳化物,所以耐腐蚀不锈钢含C量越低越好,通常C≤0.08%,但是,耐热钢的高温力学性能则决定于其组织中稳定的碳化物沉淀相,所以耐热钢的含C量都较高,一般含碳量在0.20%以上。
There are two kinds of stainless steel, Cr stainless steel, Cr and Ni stainless steel. Influence the corrosion performance of stainless steel are mainly C content and precipitation of carbides, so the corrosion resistance of stainless steel C content is lower, the better, usually C 0.08% or less, however, the high temperature of heat resistant steel mechanical performance is determined by its stable carbides precipitate phase in the organization, so the C content of heat resistant steel is higher, general carbon content above 0.20%.

 
按金相组织分类,不锈钢分为铁素体不锈钢、马氏体不锈钢、奥氏体不锈钢和双相(在奥氏体基体中有铁素体)不锈钢:
Classified by microstructure, stainless steel, martensite stainless steel are divided into ferrite stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel and duplex () in austenite matrix ferrite stainless steel:

 

 
铁素体不锈钢铸件
Ferrite stainless steel casting

 
1以铬为主要合金元素,含Cr量一般在13%--30%之间。具有良好的耐氧化性介质腐蚀的能力和在高温下耐空气氧化能力,也可用作耐热钢。此种钢的焊接性能较差。含铬大于16%时,铸态组织粗大,在400-525℃及550-700℃之间长期保温,会出现“475℃”脆性相及σ相,使钢变脆。475℃脆性与含Cr铁素体的有序化现象有关。475℃脆性相及σ相脆性,可通过加热到475℃以上然后快冷来改善。室温脆性和焊后热影响区的脆性也是铁素体不锈钢的基本问题之一,可采用真空精炼、加入微量元素(如硼、稀土及钙等)或奥氏体形成元素(如Ni、 Mu、 N、 Cu等)的办法加以改善。为了改善焊缝区与热影响区的力学性能,通常还加入少量的Ti和Nb,以阻止热影响区晶粒长大。常用的铁素体钢有ZGCr17和ZGCr28。该类钢的冲击韧性低,在很多场合被含高镍的奥氏体不锈钢所取代。含Ni量超过2%、含N量超过0.15%的铁素体钢有良好的冲击性能。
With chromium as the main alloy element, the Cr quantity is generally between 13% and 30%. The ability to corrode the oxidizing medium and the ability to withstand air oxidation at high temperature can also be used as a heat-resistant steel. The welding performance of this steel is poor. Chromium is more than 16%, the as-cast organization bulky, in 400-525 ℃ and between 550-700 ℃ heat preservation for a long time, there will be a "475 ℃" brittle phase and the sigma phase, make steel brittle. 475 ℃ brittleness associated with ordering containing Cr ferritic phenomenon. 475 ℃ brittle phase and the sigma phase brittleness, can be heated to above 475 ℃ and then quickly to improve the cold. Room temperature brittleness of brittleness and after welding heat affected zone is also one of the basic problems of ferritic stainless steel, vacuum refining, can be used to trace elements (such as boron, rare earth and calcium) or austenitic formation elements (such as Ni, Mu, N, Cu, etc.) can be improved. In order to improve the mechanical properties of the weld area and the heat affected area, a small amount of Ti and Nb are usually added to prevent the heat affected area from growing up. Common ferritic steel has ZGCr17 and ZGCr28. The steel has a low impact and is replaced by high nickel austenitic stainless steel on many occasions. Ferritic steel, containing more than 2% of Ni and more than 0.15% of N, has a good impact.

 
马氏体不锈钢铸件
Martensitic stainless steel castings

 
2马氏体不锈钢包括马氏体型不锈钢和沉淀硬化型不锈钢。在工程应用中,是以力学性能为主要目的。虽然这类钢在大气腐蚀和较缓和的腐蚀介质中(如水及某些有机介质)具有良好的抗腐蚀的能力,但其腐蚀性能往往不作为检验项目。其化学成分的范围是:Cr13%-17%,Ni2%-6%,C≤0.06%。金相组织中主要是低碳板条状马氏体,因此,具有优良的力学性能,强度指标是奥氏体不锈钢的二倍以上,同时又具备良好的工艺性能,特别是焊接性能。因此在重要工程应用中占有极为重要的地位,是铸造不锈钢领域内的一个重要分支。
Martensitic stainless steel includes martensitic stainless steel and precipitated hardened stainless steel. In engineering applications, it is the main purpose of mechanical properties. Although this kind of steel in atmospheric corrosion and moderate corrosion medium (such as water and some organic medium) has good corrosion resistant ability, but its corrosion resistance is often not as a test project. The range of its chemical composition is: Cr13 % minus 17%, ni2% % minus 6%, C is less than 0.06%. Microstructure of low carbon plate strip martensite, therefore, it has excellent mechanical properties, strength index is more than 2 times of austenitic stainless steel, and also have good process performance, especially the welding performance. Therefore, it is an important branch in casting stainless steel.

 
奥氏体不锈钢铸件
Austenitic stainless steel castings

 
3奥氏体不锈钢可分为四组,即Cr‐Ni系;Cr‐Ni‐Mo、 Cr‐Ni‐Cu或 Cr‐Ni‐Mo‐Cu系; Cr‐Mn‐N系和 Cr‐Ni‐Mn‐N系。Cr‐Ni系以著名的“18-8”为代表。Cr‐Ni‐Mo、 Cr‐Ni‐Cu、 Cr‐Ni‐Mo‐Cu系在Cr‐Ni系的基础上加入2%-3%的钼和铜(或二者同时加入),以提高抗硫酸的腐蚀性,但钼是铁素体形成元素,为了保证奥氏体化,加钼后含Ni量要适当增加。Cr‐Mn‐N系是节省Ni的合金。当含Cr量大于15%时,单独加入猛并不能获得理想的奥氏体组织,必须加入0.2%-0.3%的氮,要得到单一的奥氏体必须加入0.35%以上的氮。由于含N量过高往往使铸件产生气孔、疏松等缺陷,而加入适量的N和少量的Ni,即可得到单一奥氏体,这就出现Cr‐Ni‐Mn‐N系。当然要得到奥氏体、铁素体复相组织,就不须加入更多的N和Ni。
The austenitic stainless steel can be divided into four groups, the Cr ‐ Ni system. Cr ‐ Ni ‐ rate, Cr, Ni, or Cr. Cr ‐ Mn ‐ N series and Cr ‐ Ni ‐ Mn ‐ N. Cr ‐ Ni is represented by the famous "18-8". Cr ‐ Ni ‐ ‐ Mo, Cr Ni ‐ ‐ Ni, Cu, Cr ‐ Mo ‐ Cu system on the basis of Cr ‐ Ni is add 2% to 3% of molybdenum and copper join (or both), in order to improve the resistance to sulfate corrosion, but molybdenum ferrite formation elements, in order to guarantee the austenitizing, after add molybdenum content of Ni to appropriately increase. Cr ‐ Mn ‐ N is an alloy that saves Ni. When Cr content is more than 15%, are unable to obtain the ideal individual to join fierce austenitic organization, must add 0.2% to 0.3% of nitrogen, to get a single austenite must add more than 0.35% of nitrogen. Due to too high N content tend to make the casting defects such as blowholes, osteoporosis, and adding suitable amount of N and a small amount of Ni, can be single austenite, this is a Cr ‐ Ni ‐ Mn ‐ N system. Of course, you don't have to add more N and Ni to get the austenite and ferrite complex.

 
奥氏体—铁素体复相不锈钢铸件
Austenitic body - ferritic stainless steel castings

 
4复相钢的金相组织通常是含有5%-40%的铁素体,以改善合金的焊接性,增加强度和提高抗应力腐蚀能力。例如Cr28%-Ni10%-C0.30%的高碳高铬合金钢,具有良好的抗硫酸腐蚀能力,可制造铸件使用。在此基础上发展的可控制铁素体型钢,有较高的强度,且在硫酸盐中有良好的抗应力腐蚀能力,常用于石油工业的装置。
The metallographic tissue of 4-phase steel is usually a 5%-40% ferrite to improve the weldability of the alloy, increase strength and enhance the resistance to stress corrosion. For example, Cr28 % -ni10% % - c0.30% high carbon high chromium alloy steel, has good anti-sulphate corrosion resistance, can make casting use. On the basis of the development of the controlled company ferrite steel, has high strength, and in the sulfate has the good ability to resist stress corrosion, commonly used in the oil industry.
 

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